International Intellectual Property Rights

The absence of an international sovereign makes a global IPRs system problematic. Every nation has different intellectual property laws, making cooperation difficult, although many international IPRs agreements have been developed. Which nation’s standards should apply? Most international agreements take a national approach in which a country agrees to provide foreign innovators with the same protection provided to its domestic citizens. Creators of intellectual property generally must seek protection separately in each jurisdiction, a cumbersome process.

The United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) provides support for the international intellectual property system. Its mission is “to promote through international cooperation the creation, dissemination, use and protection of works of the human mind for the economic, cultural and social progress of all mankind.”

Globalization has increased the need for more international IPRs coordination. Multinational organizations seek consistent laws across borders and inventors want universal protection for their inventions. The World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) attempts to provide a more standard IPRs system and sets minimum protection that must be provided by all member states.

Ethical issues become particularly important at the international level (Rischard 2002). Some fear that increasing IPRs protection will increase inequities between the developed and the developing world. Others are concerned that IPRs deny access to products desperately needed by the poor or powerless. Still others believe adequate IPRs standards are critical to promoting technology transfer and foreign investment.

IPRs can deny access to essential products and information to those who need them most, particularly in developing countries. Drug research and development is extremely expensive, and pharmaceutical countries price drugs to recoup expenses and make a profit. No one else is allowed to manufacture drugs protected under patents. Those who need the drugs often have little money. Is it fair to allow people to die because they cannot afford drugs that could prolong their lives?

The TRIPS Agreement allows for compulsory licenses, an exception to IPRs in special cases such as emergencies, that give developing countries access to essential drugs for major health problems such as HIV/AIDS or malaria. Such policies may have a boomerang effect; pharmaceutical companies may be less likely to invest in research to develop drugs for conditions found primarily in poor countries if there is no profit to be made. The answer to the drug access problem may be better addressed by turning to solutions unrelated to intellectual property rights, such as foreign aid. Some pharmaceutical companies have made drugs available at drastically reduced rates to those who cannot afford them.

Inspiration for new products often comes from local or traditional knowledge. Who should benefit when a drug company develops a new drug based on knowledge about the properties of a plant gained from an indigenous tribe in a remote region? Is the company that developed a commercial drug entitled to all the profits or should it share revenues with the people who supplied the information or with the country from which the plants are harvested?

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Barriers in Providing Energy Efficient Lighting

The energy efficient lighting is often recognized as a symbol for energy efficiency. However, energy saving constitutes a major component for energy conservation and power saving. And, the government is trying for various measures and scopes for reducing the energy consumption through energy efficient lighting schemes.

So, it has been observed that, there are several barriers which occur in providing energy proficient lighting schemes for various reasons, including, high capital cost, lack of knowledge and good quality products. And, even though the high frequency electronic glass provides power savings, but yet they faces major problems like: humming sound and production of harmonics by some of the electronic products, high cost of the electronic circuit, and automatic switching on and off of lighting by using the electronic sensors.

Some of the measures which contribute to the economic use of the energy efficient lighting include the following: the maximum use of sunlight detectors, use of energy efficient lamps such as: slim line tubes, HPMV tubes, CFL and TL 5 tubes. Then using of the high efficiency luminous, high frequency chokes and reducing the intensity of artificial light by using the sunlight. Some of the measures also include segregating the general and task lighting and using of the sensors for automatic switching on and off of the lighting.

However, despite of this, there are innumerable barriers in providing the energy proficient lighting. These include: having high capital cost for example: using of the energy efficient fixtures like, Asian E+ with T5 lamps, sensors, electronic detectors, electronic chokes, and dimmers have a high capital cost. Then, lack of awareness about the product for example: some of the products which contributes to the improvement of the efficiency of the lighting are not available in the local market, which in turn results into lack of awareness.

Apart from this, it also depends upon the availability of the good quality products, for example, there are not proper guarantees about the energy efficient accessories or products, that whether they would perform well or not and provides satisfaction to the customer. And, it has been observed that, the life span of these electronic products have got limited time period and often they produce humming noise. So, that’s why it is recommended by the Telecom Buildings in India for using of the few energy saving devices and fixtures, as this would definitely increase the awareness about the power and energy consumption.

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7 Advantages to Getting a FREE Online Auto Loan Quote Before Visiting a Dealership!

1) When you go to the supermarket you have a budgeted amount you are willing to spend so, why would you go to a dealership without a budget?

As a General Motors and Hyundai Product Specialist and former Finance Manager I see buyers do this everyday. They come into the dealership without knowing what is the best price they can get for the vehicle. On top of this they don’t know what interest rates they qualify for before coming to the dealership.

Not knowing best vehicle price + Not knowing interest rate = You Pay more!

Regardless of what type of credit you have you should always research and know the vehicle price and interest rate you qualify for before you enter any dealership. You can accomplish this by getting a FREE Auto Quote and FREE Auto Loan Quote before you visit the dealership.

Doing these two activities before visiting the dealership will save you both time and money. As well as make your auto buying experience better. Because no one really likes going to the auto dealer.

In fact I’m sure most people would rank the experience last on their preferred list of things to do, just above going to the dentist to get a root canal.

2) Not All dealerships are Created Equal – Know which dealerships offer programs for perfect and less than perfect credit.

Any dealership can deal with a person with perfect credit. However, not every dealership can handle individuals with less than perfect credit. By getting a FREE online auto loan quote you gain the following advantages:

a.) Find dealers that work with all customer types regardless of credit.

b.) Get approved for a vehicle loan regardless of credit.

c.) Know exactly what type of autos you qualify for.

3) Know what’s on Your Credit Report before you visit the Dealership.

There’s nothing worse than walking into a dealership and expecting a 5% interest rate and then having me, the Finance Manager quote you 21%. I’ve had to tell countless people this and some of them are upset as if I personally had something to do with what rate they qualify for and what is on their credit reports.

The truth is that you are responsible for your credit score, which largely determines what rate you qualify for. I rarely have any problem with customers who are educated about their credit scores because they already know the rates and types of autos they qualify for.

My advice is to get your FREE Credit Report and find out your credit score before you go to the dealer. This will allow you to know what rates you qualify for and to see exactly what good and bad things may be lurking on your credit report.

The advantage of submitting an online auto loan quote is that dealerships will automatically contact you with the types of autos you are approved for regardless of your credit.

4) Entering a FREE online auto loan quote gives you access to multiple dealerships without traveling — saving you time, gas and money.

In the past I’ve seen customers drive to several dealerships just to save a $100 dollars on their vehicle purchase price. That may have worked in the past but given gas prices who wants to drive around town and lose that money in gas. There is a better way you know? By submitting a FREE online Auto Quote you can get the best prices for any vehicle in the comfort of your home.

When you submit an online auto price quote your request is sent to several area dealers who compete for your business by sending you quotes for any vehicle you choose. So why waste money and time driving around town when you can have multiple quotes sent to you while sitting in your comfortable robe and slippers. Choose the best price and then go to that particular dealership.

5) Know what interest rate & terms you qualify for beforehand so you can enter a dealership and buy with confidence.

By submitting an auto loan application you get the benefit of having several dealerships work to earn your business. Once you land on a particular car and dealership, go to their website and find their payment calculator. Most dealers have this listed under the Finance or Payments section of their website. Use this helpful tool to figure out your interest rate and possible monthly payments.

6) You get pre-approved financing and this allows you to control the sales process because you know which vehicles you can afford to buy.

Ah yes, there’s nothing like confidently walking into the dealer knowing you’re pre-approved! Beats the alternative of not knowing anything! The great advantage to getting an auto loan quote is that you get pre-approved and can walk confidently into any dealership knowing:

*What vehicle you’ve been approved for

*Amount that you will pay for your new or pre-owned vehicle.

*Estimated monthly payments and terms (months) for your auto.

I cannot stress enough how good it will feel to walk in with paper in hand of the vehicle you are about to purchase. It also allows the Sales Consultant to shorten the sales process thereby shortening your time at the dealership. Although, there are some people who actually like hanging out at the dealership. I know it sounds kinda weird but my son is one of those types of people along with some of our best customers.

7) It’s absolutely FREE!

Did I mention that getting an online auto loan quote is FREE! Oh yeah, I did. Just think, no getting dressed, starting up the car and driving around town wasting gas trying to haggle the best price out of each dealership. You just sit at your computer sipping your favorite beverage, fill out ONE auto loan quote and then magically; multiple dealers begin contacting you regarding your request. It’s that simple! The Internet is really a great thing!

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Improve Your Poor Credit Score and Secure Yourself a Loan

So you are thinking of getting some extra money to make some urgent home repairs, the porch door needs replacing, along with a new hot water system. Unfortunately you do not have the money in the bank, but neither do you have a secure porch door or any constant hot water.

Have you considered personal loans? A lot of people take out personal loans for this type of repair. Car repairs and even holidays are used by people with their newly acquired finances. Most people have heard that a poor credit score is not a good thing (However even those that have a poor financial history can still get loans). But how do you make a good rating?

One of thing major pieces of advice from experts, before you apply for finance it is best to get a credit report completed from a reputable source. This will give you an idea of the chance of getting your application approved. In the United States of America there are three levels of credit rating, basically the higher it is the better it is.

An excellent rating is above 760, a good rating would be between 700 and 759 and a poor rating would be between 640 to 699. if you are at the top end, 760 and above then there is no point in making your rating any better. However with other ratings it is worth trying to improve as it will help your chances of succeeding in the application.

There does seem to be a bit of a chicken and egg situation sometimes, you need finance but have a poor score,but to improve you need a lender to give you a chance. Well, luckily there are things that you and your family if you have one, can do to improve your rating.

Having a poor rating does not mean you have to be stuck with it, starting to pay the bills on time instead of late or not at all will start to get you on the right path. Some lenders will still give applicants loans even with a low score, but the total given will be lower than usually and the percentage rate will be considerably higher. So you will pay more over the period of the finance.

Families can help too. If a member of your family has a good rating then some credit card companies can add you to that family members credit card as an authorized user, this will help with any poor credit score. Also having a family member with a good rating co-sign the loan could help you get what you need.

Finding the correct lender for your score is a good way to make sure that you are getting what you deserve, if you have a high score you deserve some of the best deals on the market. Instead of going to your bank or card company you can go online and search for a matching company. Companies like this are a good place go to make sure you achieve the best deal.

What are a matching company and what do they do? You enter your details on their online program and your information will be fed to several of their approved lenders, in turn the lenders will then return to the matching company with a list of loans that they are able to offer.

Once the offers come back it is then up to the applicant to choose one and complete all the necessary paperwork. A check will then be received within a matter of days and your new boiler and door fitted soon after.

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Payment Options for Shopping All the Way

Everyone is busy. Busy in shopping online and in the malls. Popular online portals are breaking and making new sale records! All thanks to the convenience and the availability of easy payment options and funds!

Here are few of the factors that are making online businesses a success

Credit Cards: A credit card is plastic money. It is one of the easiest form in which a person gets a personal loan.

All online portals as well as retailers in malls accept credit cards issued by various banks.
Online payment becomes very simple and safe, thanks to the one time passwords generated for such transactions.
A PIN is sufficient for shopping using a credit card at any retail store.

Personal loans for shopping: When we apply for a personal loan, we don’t have to provide the financier with the details of what we want the loan for.

Thus these days’ personal loans are being used to finance shopping.
They can also be used as wedding loans, vacation loans and educational loans.

Payment Processing: As far as payment processing is concerned, the following factors matter to both the consumer and the online retailer.

Uncomplicated manoeuvring on website: It is important for the payment process to be step-by-step and easy to understand. Most websites work on this section very carefully and thus the online shopping experience is satisfactory.

Processing Costs: Processing costs matter to the retailers. More the processing fees they have to pay to providers of payment gateways like Visa, the lesser are their margins. So to have an effective business the processing costs need to be low.
Number of payment options: Multiple payment options should be available for the customer to make payment. This makes the shopping a convenient proposition.
Time taken to process transactions: Processing time not only tests your patience but sometimes also the strength of your internet connection!

Cash on Delivery: This is also known as “collection on delivery.” This is a very popular mode of making payments for shopping in the developing world.

It enhances impulse purchases.
A credit card is not an essential possession for the buyer.
The buyer can check the quality of the product and then pay

So this festive season, do not hesitate to shop and to gift! The availability of funds for shopping is not difficult anymore. Also the convenience of online shopping has brought various retailers to our doorstep. So let us shop all the way!

An easy way of shopping is using a credit card. It forms an integral part of most people’s financial planning. When used in the right manner, it helps reduce financial liability and optimizes financial resources.

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Are Online Personal Loans Good For People With Bad Credit?

While the rise of online lending in itself makes it more convenient for people to apply for finance, is this development a good thing for those who are already struggling? There are companies out there who charge expensive annual percentage rates (APRs), leaving many people in more trouble than when they first started.

But it doesn’t have to be this way. Over the last few years, online lending has earned itself a bad reputation. The internet leaves many people vulnerable to fraud, so you should always exercise caution when inputting your financial details. The best way to make sure your information remains safe is to find a secure, reliable lending platform.

There is an unfair irony attached to lending today. Those with bad credit are often led to believe they have no financial options if they have made mistakes in the past, often making their situations seem more desperate than they actually are. This can result in people making bad decisions and can lead to borrowing through unstable sources.

Meanwhile, any lenders that do accept you with bad credit will charge extortionate interest rates because of your history, making it more difficult for you to meet your monthly repayment obligations – thus worsening your situation. This is a trap that many people fall into, and it gives online installment lenders a bad name.

However, this doesn’t need to be the case. If you can find yourself a reliable lending platform, you will be connected to a secure network of trustworthy lenders who can offer sensible solutions to your borrowing needs. Many of these lenders will assess your application, even if your credit file isn’t perfect or your income is lower than average.

Instead of (or in some cases, as well as) running credit checks, these lenders will take other factors into consideration, including your income and employment circumstances, and how long you have lived at your current address. They may even ask for references they can contact who will vouch for your character personally.

Even those who receive benefits as a form of income will be able to apply, giving everyone a fair and carefully considered chance of borrowing money. In these cases, applicants won’t be accepted for higher loans than they can afford to pay back, and interest rates will be low, meaning there is a better chance of managing repayments.

If you have poor credit and need to borrow money, consider a personal installment loan, but make sure the APR is advertised between 5.99% and 35.99%. There should also be a number of options in terms of flexible repayment, offering you the chance to pay the money back anywhere between six months and six years, depending on what you can afford to pay per month.

Small, carefully considered personal loans could actually help you build a financial profile making you eligible for better future borrowing. As long as the lender is responsible, and offers reasonable interest rates, online lending platforms can actually give people with more opportunities than many other lenders in terms of improving their situation.

With this in mind, personal loans can be beneficial to those hoping to improve their credit score, but only if some caution is exercised by both parties, and you only apply to borrow an amount you can afford to pay back.

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Five Reasons for Refusal of a Personal Loan

Don’t you wish personal finance were a mandatory course in college? Unfortunately, too many of us learn by mistake. When you need a personal loan and are rejected, you might be baffled as to what went wrong- and how to fix it. Here are some clues.

NO CREDIT

No credit is a situation where you have never used credit and therefore have no credit history for the bank to review. They have no way of making an educated decision on whether or not you will pay back a personal loan based on your credit history. No credit is worse than bad credit. Qualifying for and making regular payments on these types of introductory forms of credit can overcome a “no credit” score:

· Student Loans

· Secured credit card (includes a down payment amount)

· Being added to a parent’s or spouses good credit: card, car loan, etc.

LOW CREDIT

Low credit takes on several forms. If you’re using more than 30% of your allowable debt, it can negatively impact your score. Too many inquiries from shopping around for loans will also hit you hard. Lapses in payment, defaults, or bankruptcies are giant red flags and can take a long time to rebuild from.

Other things that lenders may look at are whether or not you have sizeable assets should you default on the loan. They also check to see if your debts are diversified or if you are only carrying one type of debt.

INCOME

Proof of income is generally required when applying for a personal loan. If you are unemployed or underemployed, it can work against you in the loan approval process. Lenders may also require a work history to see how long you have been with your current employer, and to determine if you typically have job stability. Frequent job loss or change will tell a creditor that your payments may not be reliable.

PURPOSE OF THE LOAN

Believe it or not, your application can be rejected due to your proposed purpose for the loan. Financial institutions have the right to set up the parameters surrounding their disbursements and can accept or reject your application based on what you want to use the money for.

BLACKLISTING

If you’ve defaulted on debt before, your name may be put on a list of whom not to loan to,’ also known as a “Blacklist.” This will follow you around for a long time and is difficult to erase. If you do resolve the debt issues, get documents to prove the resolution.

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How Can A Personal Loan Improve Your Credit Score?

When it comes to a personal loan, you have to first learn to use it responsibly. Because if you miss a repayment, your credit score will be impacted adversely. And remember, that a credit score is an indicator of how well you manage your personal finances. Also, it plays a defining role when you apply for any kind of loan – secured and unsecured. It is suggested to apply for a loan slightly larger than what is needed so that you will be assured to have enough money to pay all bills necessary and still have some money left over to ensure that your bank account stays current.

A credit score can be defined as a number which reflects the financial situation of a person. If the person is well-off when it comes to financial matters, then he or she is said to have a high credit score. On the other hand, if a person is the exact opposite of this, then they possess a low credit score. There are a lot of factors that are considered by financial institutions for the purpose of evaluating a person’s credit score – usually, the credit scores of people vary from 300 to about 850.

A personal loan is a type of loan that is given by digital lenders, banks and credit unions to aid you in your plans, be it starting a small business, or making a big purchase. Personal loans tend to have an interest rate(s) lower than the credit cards; however, they can also be put to use for combining several credit card debts together into one monthly lower-cost payment.

Now, your credit score is built by keeping in mind various parameters from your credit reports. These reports serve the purpose of trailing your history of utilization of the credit across the duration of seven years. These credit reports are comprised of information, including how much credit you have utilized to date, the type of credit in your possession, the age of one’s credit accounts, whether one has put in for bankruptcy or liens filed against them, actions of debt collections taken against them, one’s total open lines of credit as well as recent inquiries for hard credit.

Like any other type of credit, personal loans are very capable of affecting your credit score. This can be done through the process of applying and withdrawing a personal loan. If you are curious as to how personal loans can end up affecting your credit, then read on to find out more about the context. There are many ways in which your credit can be affected by personal loans and some of them are listed below:

The ratio of your debt-to-income and loan

Debt-to-income ratio is considered to be the measure of your amount of income that you spend on the debt repayments. In the case of lenders, the amount of income that you receive is said to be one of the major factors proving that you are able to repay your loan.

Some of the lenders have come up with their own debt-to-income ratio so that their proprietary credit scores may make use of it in the form of a credit consideration. Do not fall into the kind of mindset that possessing a high amount of a loan would hurt your credit. The most damage it can do is raise the ratio of your debt-to-income so that you won’t be able to apply for loans anymore without it getting rejected or denied.

Paying loans on time will make credit scores soar

The moment your loan is approved, you have to make sure that you settle the payments of each month on time and in full. Delay in repayment may significantly impact the state of your credit score. However, on the other hand, if you make the payments on time every month, then your credit score will soar high, leading to an overall good score. This will not only make your name to the preferred borrower’s list, but it will prove to be beneficial for you in the long run.

Since your payment history is comprised of almost 35% of your credit score, paying loans on time is essential in cases like these so that your credit score can maintain a positive status.

Variety is built into your credit type

There are about five factors that are responsible for determining your credit score. These are composed of the payment history, the length of the credit history, the utilization ratio of the credit, the credit mix and new inquiries of the credit in accordance with FICO®.

The credit mix only accounts for about 35% of your total credit score, whereas when it comes to a personal loan you can have a varying mix of the credit types. This mix of all types of credit is viewed at a high level of approval by the creditors and lenders.

Origination fee charged by loans

Most of the lenders end up charging you an origination fee. This fee cannot be avoided at any cost and is instantly taken off from the amount of the loan payment. The amount of origination fees depends upon the amount of the loan you are about to borrow. Late payments can lead to an overdraft of fees and late expenses. Therefore, make sure that you pay complete repayment for each month before the deadline.

Avoiding penalties when it comes to payments

Some of the credit lenders tend to charge an additional fee if you end up paying your part of the loan earlier than the agreed date. This is because they are looking for moderate amounts of interest on your loan. Now, seeing that you have paid off your part of the loan before time, they will miss out on that interest that they could have possibly made if you had not cleared the debt soon enough before the deadline.

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